The Korean Public Administration Review (KPAR), which has published quarterly volumes since its establishment in 1967, is the official journal of the Korean Association for Public Administration(KAPA). As a scholarly journal, KPAR not only hold the highest authority in the field of public administration in South Korea, but also in social science. Since the National Research Foundation of Korea began evaluating journals, KPAR has been listed in the Korea Citation Index (KCI) journal index.
Team play or team kill? The effects of free riding on conflict and team outcome 팀플이냐, 팀킬이냐? 무임승차가 조직 내 갈등과 팀 성과에 미치는 영향
최미정 Choi Mi-jung , 은재호 Eun Jeaho
DOI:10.18333/KPAR.54.4.1 Vol.54(No.4) 1-33, 2020
This study identified the effect of free riding on conflict and team outcome by examining it in three steps. First, we identified the direct effects of free riding on team conflict (task conflict, relationship conflict) and team outcome (team performance, team satisfaction). Second, we explored the mediating effects of conflict between free riding and team outcome. Third, we investigated the moderating effects of team members' participation (i.e., hard-working team members or free riders) and analyzed the moderated mediation effect of the total model. We analyzed data gathered from 16 weeks’ observation and survey of 18 teams. Given the dearth of empirical research on free riding, this study is meaningful as a field study. From the results, we found three things: First, free riding had varied effects on team outcome. Free riding and team performance have no significant relation, but free riding associates with team satisfaction negatively. This implies that team performance depends on hard-working members’ competence. Second, free riding increased task and relationship conflicts. Relationship conflict partially mediated the relation between free riding and team satisfaction, and task conflict had no effect on that relation. Third, hard-working team members felt relationship conflict less than free riders. Participation decreased the negative mediation effect of relationship conflict between free riding and team satisfaction. Especially, free riders in teams with many free riders perceived high task conflict and relationship conflict and low team satisfaction. This is contrary to the common perception about free riders, so we analyzed further and found some explanatory factors, among them the team member’s role and status and the team leader’s cooperative leadership. The results suggest a new approach to deal with the free-riding problem and contribute to enlarging our understanding of free riding and team dynamics.
free riding, task conflict, relationship conflict, team outcome, team performance, team satisfaction, common goods management, 무임승차, 조직 내 갈등, 팀 성과, 팀 만족, 공유재 관리
This study analyzed the effect of earnings management on short-term financial performance, focusing on the interaction effects of member of audit committee and CEO. First, the member of audit committee served as a suppressor of the effect of the accrual earnings management, which is relatively more likely to be found externally. However, the effect of the real earnings management, which has a relatively low risk of being found externally, was not curbed by the member of audit committee, but rather increased significantly. Second, the shorter the term of the CEO and the more likely he or she is to work in the political field (e.g. politician) after retirement, the greater the increase in short-term financial performance through earnings management during the term of the CEO. The analysis results of this study suggest, first, that the performance-based salary method for members of audit committees should be distinguished from that of institutions and the CEO. Second, if the CEO is appointed, he or she needs to guarantee their tenure, and he or she needs to be replaced by more objective standards such as evaluation of the public institution's management performance rather than political motivation. Third, this study shows that the post-retirement goals and expectations of the CEO may change the way the agency operates during the term of the CEO. In particular, in order to go into the political field after retirement, the reputation of the agency's operation is one of the important criteria, suggesting that there is a reason to increase short-term institutional performance.
earnings management, financial performance, member of audit committee, CEO, 이익조정, 재무, 회계성과, 감사위원, 기관장
Determinants of career outcomes from the perspective of social embeddedness: Structural relationship with network resources and LMX, and gender differences 사회적 배태성 관점의 경력성과 결정요인에 관한 연구: 네트워크 자원, LMX와의 구조적 관계 및 성별의 효과차이
The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of subjective “career outcomes” from the perspective of social embeddedness, and to verify the structural relationship between network resources, LMX, and subjective career performance (career satisfaction, career commitment). In other words, we regarded individuals as being embedded in relationships and interacting with each other, and examined what relational characteristics influence career outcomes. In addition, we attempted to verify the difference in gender effect in the informal career path. The results of conducting a structural equation model and multi-group analysis of 389 central and local public officials showed that network resources had a significant positive (+) relationship with career satisfaction and career commitment, and LMX with career satisfaction. Also, career satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between network resources, LMX, and career commitment. The multi-group analysis showed the relationship between LMX and career satisfaction to be statistically significant only for women. Finally, this study interprets the analysis results in consideration of the duality of embeddedness, and provides policy implications based on this.
social embeddedness, network resources, LMX, career outcomes, career satisfaction, career commitment, 사회적 배태성, 경력성과, 경력만족, 경력몰입, 네트워크 자원
organizational size and structural complexity have a nonlinear relationship to the bureaucratic component. We find that organization size and administrative intensity have a nonlinear relationship. Specifically, administrative intensity at first decreased as organization size grew, but then increased after a certain point. This nonlinear relationship (U-shaped) was shown both in the case of restricted administrative intensity, which is measured by the percentage of solely administrative staff in relation to full-time faculty members, and in the case of broad administrative intensity as measured by the percentage of full-time employees in relation to faculty members. The structural complexity of the organization was found to have no statistically significant relationship with restricted administrative intensity. However, horizontal complexity also has a nonlinear relationship to broad administrative intensity. This means that if the number of departments in a university increases to a certain level, administrative intensity will decrease, but if the threshold is exceeded, administrative intensity will increase. These results suggest that the size and complexity of a university may have an economy of scale that reduces administrative intensity at first, but then results in a diseconomy of scale after passing the optimum point.
administrative intensity, bureaucratic structure, organizational size, structural complexity, economy of scale, economy of scope, 행정 농도, 행정 역량, 조직 규모, 구조적 복잡성, 규모의 경제, 범위의 경제
This study measured the government health expenditure of 32 OECD countries with a global Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index, and then analyzed the influences of governance and institutions on their productivity. Productivity from 2000 to 2015 declined by an annual average of 0.5%. Efficiency and technological change also decreased by a yearly average of 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively. This indicates that the productivity of public health spending decreased by efficiency deterioration rather than technological regress. The influences of governance on the productivity of government health spending show that government effectiveness, political stability, and control of corruption have a positive effect on it, whereas voice and accountability, and rule of law make a negative impact. The effects of fiscal institutions reveal that while fiscal rules and expenditure decentralization exercise a positive impact on the productivity of government health spending, independent fiscal institutions and tax-revenue decentralization have a negative effect. In particular, when independent fiscal institutions are used in conjunction with fiscal rules, the positive effect of independent fiscal institutions is inclined to increase. Concerning political institutions, unitary state, parliamentary system, and proportional representation affect the productivity of government health expenditure positively, while multi-party coalition government influences it, even limitedly, positively.
government health expenditure, global Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index, governance, fiscal institutions, political institutions, 정부보건지출, 전역 맘퀴스트-루엔버거 생산성지수, 거버넌스, 재정제도, 정치제도
The “baby bonus” is a representative policy in Korea that aims to reverse fertility rate decline. Although there have been many studies to evaluate the effect of the baby bonus policy, these have not considered that the baby bonus and the fertility rate can have a simultaneous, reciprocal effect on each other. We focus on the relationship between the baby bonus and the fertility rate using a simultaneous equation model. The results show that the fertility rate significantly affects the baby bonus, but the opposite is not true. This study implies that as the number of beneficiaries increases the baby bonus regardless of quantitative efficacy and asserts that considering the potential endogeneity of policy goals is essential in evaluating the effects of social welfare policies.
The main question of this research is “What characteristics of government enhance citizens’ trust in government?” Using the concepts of trust and trustworthiness, the research identified four characteristics of trustworthy government; namely, ability, benevolence, transparency, and consistency. To answer the research question, a survey experiment was conducted with 806 citizens. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis demonstrated that all four factors of trustworthiness contributed to citizens’ trust in government. In addition, the effects of benevolence and transparency of government were larger for liberals than conservatives. Based on the analysis results, this study argues that to earn citizens’ trust, government needs to steadily develop its benevolence, transparency, and consistency, as well as build its basic capabilities.
This study analyzes whether the effects of a government’s ability and morality in enhancing government trust depends on the current level of government trust; that is, whether the key mechanisms for increasing the government trust of those who trust the government and the key mechanisms for increasing the government trust of those who do not trust the government are different. The analysis results show that the effect of the government's ability (effectiveness, responsiveness) to enhance government trust was greater in the people with already high confidence levels. On the other hand, the effect of the government's morality (integrity) on enhancing government trust was greater in the people with low confidence levels. This suggests that it is particularly important to meet expectations for the functional aspects of the government to further raise the confidence level of those who already trust the government, and to overcome the distrust of those who do not trust the government, it is especially important to avoid disappointment over the ethical aspects of the government. This study captured differences according to confidence levels, which have been overlooked in previous studies, mainly taking a conditional average approach, which provides useful implications for determining what strategic approaches the government should take to overcome public distrust and enhance trust.
trust in government, government competence, government corruption, government performance, quantile regression, 정부신뢰, 정부역량, 부패, 정부성과, 분위회귀분석
An empirical exploration of public servants’ political neutrality: Focusing on unbiasedness, political responsiveness, and political responsibility 공무원의 정치적 중립 행태에 관한 실증 분석: 불편부당성, 정치적 대응성, 정치적 책임성을 중심으로
Political neutrality has often been used with conflicting meanings by different researchers and in different cases due to conceptual ambiguity. The political use of the term has added to the confusion in discussing political neutrality. Based on an awareness of these problems, this study divides the political neutrality of civil servants into three dimensions: unbiasedness, political responsiveness, and political responsibility. Political neutrality as unbiasedness means maintaining the same attitude regardless of who the political superior is. Political neutrality as political responsiveness means taking orders from the political superior as one's own beliefs. Political neutrality as political responsibility means actively reflecting on and judging orders from superiors in the light of one’s own sense of public value. Our empirical analysis confirmed that political personnel intervention, public service motivation, and political orientation were factors affecting political neutrality. This suggests that civil servants can serve as the last resort for the protection of the public interest in a society of "political excessiveness." Finally, this study seeks to derive practical implications through empirical research as well as the development of the concept of political neutrality.
political neutrality, political intervention, PSM, 정치적 중립성, 인사개입, 공공봉사동기
What is the nature of local autonomy? This paper reviews the nature of autonomy from the perspective of rights, institutions, and sovereignty. Although autonomy of local government is not stipulated as a basic right in the Constitution, it is derived as a basic right through the interpretation of the Constitution. As a basic right, autonomy has the nature of a basic right of a unique character that does not fall under the category of free or social rights. This is because, as a basic right, the subject of autonomy is divided into citizens and local governments. As a basic right, the autonomy of citizens, the main body of autonomy, has the characteristics of citizen sovereignty in the sense of division of the local unit of national sovereignty, and serves as the basis for the sovereignty of local governments. The autonomy of local governments is a secondary autonomy prescribed by the system of the Constitution and local autonomy-related laws. The aspects of autonomy guaranteed by the system include the autonomy of citizens as the right to claim and the autonomy of local governments as the right to form legal relations in the region. Through a review of the nature of autonomy, this paper proposes several insights for strengthening autonomy.